Tuesday, April 9, 2013

Android Tutorial: Using the ViewPager

Currently, one of the most popular Widgets in the Android library is the ViewPager.  It's implemented in several of the most-used Android apps, like the Google Play app and one of my own apps, RBRecorder:

RBRecorder

 

 

GooglePlay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ViewPager is the widget that allows the user to swipe left or right to see an entirely new screen. In a sense, it's just a nicer way to show the user multiple tabs. It also has the ability to dynamically add and remove pages (or tabs) at anytime. Consider the idea of grouping search results by certain categories, and showing each category in a separate list. With the ViewPager, the user could then swipe left or right to see other categorized lists. Using the ViewPager requires some knowledge of both Fragments and PageAdapters. In this case, Fragments are "pages". Each screen that the ViewPager allows the user to scroll to is really a Fragment. By using Fragments instead of a View here, we're given a much wider range of possibilities to show in each page. We're not limited to just a List of items. This could be any collection of views and widgets we may need. You can think of PageAdapters in the same way that you think of ListAdapters. The Page Adapter's job is to supply Fragments (instead of views) to the UI for drawing.

I've put together a quick tutorial that gets a ViewPager up and running (with the Support Library), in just a few steps. This tutorial follows more of a top-down approach. It moves from the Application down to the Fragments. If you want to dive straight into the source code yourself, you can grab the project here.

At The Application Level

Before getting started, it's important to make sure the Support Library is updated from your SDK, and that the library itself is included in your project. Although the ViewPager and Fragments are newer constructs in Android, it's easy to port them back to older versions of Android by using the Support Library. To add the library to your project, you'll need to create a "libs" folder in your project and drop the JAR file in. For more information on this step, check out this page on the Support Library help page on the developer site.

Setting Up The Layout File

The next step is to add the ViewPager to your layout file for your Activity. This step requires you to dive into the XML of your layout file instead of using the GUI layout editor. Your layout file should look something like this:

<RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
 xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
 android:layout_width="match_parent"
 android:layout_height="match_parent" >

   <android.support.v4.view.ViewPager
     android:id="@+id/viewpager"
     android:layout_width="fill_parent"
     android:layout_height="fill_parent" />

</RelativeLayout>

Implementing The Activity

Now we'll put the main Activity together. The main takeaways from this activity are as follows:

  • The class inherits from FragmentActivity, not Activity
  • This Activity "has a" PageAdapter object and a Fragment object, which we will define a bit later
  • The Activity needs to initialize it's own PageAdapter
public class PageViewActivity extends FragmentActivity {
  MyPageAdapter pageAdapter;
  @Override
  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.activity_page_view);
    List<Fragment> fragments = getFragments();
    pageAdapter = new MyPageAdapter(getSupportFragmentManager(), fragments);
    ViewPager pager = (ViewPager)findViewById(R.id.viewpager);
    pager.setAdapter(pageAdapter);
  }
}

Implementing The PageAdapter

Now that we have the FragmentActivity covered, we need to create our PageAdapter. This is a class that inherits from the FragmentPageAdapater class. In creating this class, we have two goals in mind:

  • Make sure the Adapter has our fragment list
  • Make sure it gives the Activity the correct fragment
class MyPageAdapter extends FragmentPagerAdapter {
  private List<Fragment> fragments;

  public MyPageAdapter(FragmentManager fm, List<Fragment> fragments) {
    super(fm);
    this.fragments = fragments;
  }
  @Override 
  public Fragment getItem(int position) {
    return this.fragments.get(position);
  }

  @Override
  public int getCount() {
    return this.fragments.size();
  }
}

Getting The Fragments Set Up

With the PageAdapter complete, all that is now needed are the Fragments themselves. We need to implement two things:

  1. The getFragment method in the PageViewActivity
  2. The MyFragment class

 

1. The getFragment method is straightforward. The only question is how are the actual Fragments created. For now, we'll leave that logic to the MyFragment class.

private List<Fragment> getFragments(){
  List<Fragment> fList = new ArrayList<Fragment>();
 
  fList.add(MyFragment.newInstance("Fragment 1"));
  fList.add(MyFragment.newInstance("Fragment 2")); 
  fList.add(MyFragment.newInstance("Fragment 3"));
 
  return fList;
}

2. The MyFragment class also has it's own layout file. For this example, the layout file only consists of a simple TextView. We'll use this TextView to tell us which Fragment we are currently looking at (notice in the getFragments code, we are passing in a String in the newInstance method).

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="match_parent"
  android:orientation="vertical" >

  <TextView
    android:id="@+id/textView"
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    android:layout_centerHorizontal="true"
    android:layout_centerVertical="true"
    android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" />

</RelativeLayout>

And now the Fragment code itself: The only trick here is that we create the fragment using a static class method, and we use a Bundle to pass information to the Fragment object itself.

public class MyFragment extends Fragment {
 public static final String EXTRA_MESSAGE = "EXTRA_MESSAGE";
 
 public static final MyFragment newInstance(String message)
 {
   MyFragment f = new MyFragment();
   Bundle bdl = new Bundle(1);
   bdl.putString(EXTRA_MESSAGE, message);
   f.setArguments(bdl);
   return f;
 }
 
 @Override
 public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container,
   Bundle savedInstanceState) {
   String message = getArguments().getString(EXTRA_MESSAGE);
   View v = inflater.inflate(R.layout.myfragment_layout, container, false);
   TextView messageTextView = (TextView)v.findViewById(R.id.textView);
   messageTextView.setText(message);
 
   return v;
 }
}

That's it! with the above code, you can easily get a simple page adapter up and running. You can also get the source code of the above tutorial from GitHub.

For More Advance Developers

There are actually a few different types of FragmentPageAdapters out there. It is important to know what they are and what they do, as knowing this bit of information could save you some time when creating complex applications with the ViewPager. The FragmentPagerAdapter is the more general PageAdapter to use. This version does not destroy Fragments it has as long as the user can potentially go back to that Fragment. The idea is that this PageAdapter is used for mainly "static" or unchanging Fragments. If you have Fragments that are more dynamic and change frequently, you may want to look into the FragmentStatePagerAdapter. This Adapter is a bit more friendly to dynamic Fragments and doesn't consume nearly as much memory as the FragmentPagerAdapter.

 

2 comments:

  1. May I ask: *why* do you create the fragment using a static method and pass arguments in using a bundle?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi Isaac,

    thank you very much! This was the only tutorial out there that I could fully compile to give me near exactly what I want. The only change is that instead of displaying the Fragment 1 or Fragment 2 or Fragment 3 text on the screen, I would like to display three different activities (Homescreen1.java, Homescreen2.java, Homescreen3.java) on swiping, for example:

    Homescreen1.java
    ================
    package com.programmingmobile.pageviewer;

    import android.os.Bundle;
    import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;

    public class Homescreen1 extends Fragment {

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.homescreen1);
    }

    private void setContentView(int homescreen1) {
    // TODO Auto-generated method stub

    }
    }
    ================

    I have tried to replace your

    fList.add(MyFragment.newInstance("Fragment 1"));

    with

    fList.add(new Homescreen1());

    but that simply displays a white screen without any text anymore.

    Would it be possible for you to elaborate on what line(s) of code you have to place where to launch the Homescreen1.java etc. instead of the text from your example?


    Thank you & keep up the great work,

    -Caspar

    ReplyDelete